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side effects

A newly published study from the University of Copenhagen has found that women who take the contraceptive pill are more likely to suffer from depression.

After studying the health records of more than one million Danish women aged 15 to 34, researchers found that those taking the combined pill – which contains artificial varieties of oestrogen and progesterone – were 23 percent more likely to be prescribed an antidepressant than those who were not on a hormonal form of contraceptive.

Scarily, that figure rose to 34 percent for takers of progestin-only pills and up to 80 percent for teens aged between 15 and 19 who were on the combined pill.

Researcher Professor Øjvind Lidegaard told the BBC that the three year study’s most significant finding was the extent to which cases of depression increased among young women with no previous mental health issues once they began taking the combined pill.

He said: “If it is increasing by 80 percent it is not a trivial finding, it's something women should be fully informed about.”

While critics of the study have been quick to point out that the results do not prove that the pill causes depression, only that it is link to it, Professor Lidegaard believes hormonal contraceptives are inducing depression.

“We cannot see any other explanation,” he said.

The study – which is one of the largest of its kind – also found an association between depression and other forms of hormonal contraceptives like implants, the coil and vaginal rings.

A 2014 study by Bayer found that Ireland has one of the lowest rates of contraceptive use in the EU, while births to teenage mothers here remain among the highest.

Among those using contraception, the pill was found to be the most popular method of choice.

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She’s always been open about having gone under the knife, but Geordie Shore’s Holly Hagan has now revealed the negative side effects of undergoing cosmetic procedures.

At 24, Holly has already experienced two boob jobs, a boob lift, Botox injections and three rounds of lip fillers, but while she still claims she’s happy with the work she’s had done, she recently told Star magazine that undergoing such treatments can cause her to pass out.

The former call centre worker said: “When I have surgery I get a bit anaemic, and if I'm travelling around I get pale and can end up passing out.”

 

When ya flick is on fleek  brows by @fayeirvine @beautybyfaye

A photo posted by Holly Hagan (@hollygshore) on

“I haven't got any down time to recover, though, and you need a good two weeks.”

When asked if she would consider having a breast reduction in the future, the Nuts model – who had her first boob job at 18 – said: “Possibly.  I wear a DD bra, but I’m an FF and want to be a D.”

Back in April she also told The Mirror that she would consider having a nose job after seeing “how amazing” Charlotte Crosby’s new nose is.

According to OK!, Holly told Star magazine that she believes the minimum age for plastic surgery should be increased from 18 to 21, as at 18 you’re “too young to make the right decisions”.

She confessed: “I needed my boobs reconstructed when I lost weight.  If I’d done my research I wouldn’t have had to do that.”

 

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If you're on the pill, then you'll know that there can be some nasty side effects.

You freak out if someone looks at you the wrong way, bloat like a balloon in the space of two minutes and cry at the end of Batman VS Superman (true story).

We have handled these side effects – and many more – for years, and even when people thought we were bizarre, we knew it was just the pill playing tricks on us.

However, now it has been confirmed that oral contraceptives do indeed effect our emotional responsiveness.

In a recent study published in the European Neuropsychopharmacology (try saying that fast), it found that women taking the pill may be less in tune when it comes to emotional situations, and find it more difficult to share empathy with others.

So, that explains why we act like a grade A b*tch sometimes.

The researchers studied 73 women in total. 18 of those didn't use any oral contraceptives, 30 of the women were on the pill and the remainder were on their pill-free week.

They looked at three elements in each woman – emotional recognition, perspective-taking and affective (emotional) responsiveness. With the first two elements, all of the women scored fairly similar, but it was the affective responsiveness that blew up the charts.

The ladies were all asked to read a sentence designed to provoke an emotion in them. They were then asked how they would feel if what was happening in the sentence, happened in real life.

The study showed that "females currently taking the pill showed better performance than those in their pill-free week." So basically, our emotions and empathy go up and down as we go on and off the pill.

The end of the study notes that "little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies.

"The current study highlights the need for future research to shed more light on the neuroendocrine alterations accompanying OC [the pill] intake."

Don't worry though, all that crazy gives us a little more charm… right?!

 

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We try to be as careful with our skin as possible. We cleanse, tone and moisturise; we use the best recommended products, and we try the new creams that promise beautiful skin.

But sometimes they don't work and it seems all that money spent on skin care products is a total waste. We lose faith in a product or a brand as our skin suffers in the meantime. 

But it might not actually be just the one thing that is ruining your skin care routine. Many popular ingredients, like vitamin C and retinol don't perform at their maximum effectiveness if you use them together. 

Certain mixtures can also cause severe dryness, irritability, inflamation, and even burning, hindering your skin’s ability to look the best it can be. 

Here are some products that do not go together and can actually harm your skin: 

 

Retinols and benzoyl peroxide

These ingredients are often found in acne treatments. Use the two of them together and they deactivate each other. The side effects could include peeling, redness, discolouration and even burning on the skin. 

 

Citric acid

Citric acid is used to adjust the pH in many skin care products. However, layering with other ingredients can cause irritation in sensitive skin so be careful what you put on your face and always ask a professional if you're not sure. 

 

Alpha hydroxy acids and retinols

Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) come at a pH of level 2 while retinols prefer a pH of level 5. Obviously they aren't two peas in a pod and that's why they shouldn't be used together. Both ingredients serve a different purpose, therefore they should be used at different times of the day. 

 

Vitamin C and alpha hydroxy acids

Both of these ingredients are acid based so using them at the same time will overload your skin with acid which is not good. Vitamin C is better for daytime use where as AHA is better for repairing your skin so keep that to night time. 

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