We just cannot seem to win with coffee drinks these days.
What we thought was a straight forward latte is shunned by the health enthusiasts. Just as we adjusted to sweeteners, they were also getting a slap on the wrist, and when they told us to start putting butter in there we nearly threw in the towel altogether.
Not surprisingly then, opting for plain black coffee seemed like the way we could avoid any caffeine confrontations.
Unfortunately that may not be true.
If you take your coffee black, you could be a psychopath. Excuse us?
A study, published in the journal Appetite, revealed people who have bitter taste preferences could also exhibit psychopathic tendencies.
The researchers at Innsbruck University in Austria surveyed 500 men and women, reports the Independent. They were shown a list of food and drink items categorized as bitter, sweet, salty and sour. They were tasked with rating the foods —which included bacon, lemons, candy and coffee—on a six-point scale.
Participants were then asked to fill out four personality questionnaires which measured their aggression levels and assessed personality traits of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism.
They answered questions relating to the “Big 5” personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.
They also completed the “Comprehensive Assessment of Sadistic Tendencies,” which is probably about as much fun as having a tooth pulled we imagine.
The results showed bitter taste preferences to be “positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy.”
Interestingly, also on the list of examples for bitter tastes: tonic water, celery and beer. Perhaps all of those green juice drinkers are not feeling as 'balanced' as they would have us believe.
However, Shape magazine have been quick to point out that the study may not be as accurate as many would believe. They reminded everyone that correlation doesn‘t necessarily equal causation. Meaning: because there is a “positive association” between any two things it does not mean that one of those things will directly cause the other thing.